Rani Chennamma of Kittur was one of the first women rulers of India who fought against the might of the British Empire in 1824. Rani Chennamma was born in 1778 in a small village of Kakati in Belgaon distt of the State of Karnataka.

She was born into the Lingayat Community to a man named Dhulappa Desai. From a very young age she was trained in horse riding,sword fighting, archery and diplomacy. At a very young age of 15 yrs, she was married to the King of Kittur and became the Queen of Kittur.
It is said that King of Kittur Mallasarja was once moving around in the neighbouring kingdoms to find support to fight Tipu Sultan. It is then, when he came across Chennamma and he immediately got attracted to her sheer confidence and bravery.
Rani Chennamma and King Mallasarja had a son together who died very soon after the death of King Mallasarja in 1816. As the Queen of Kittur, Rani Chennamma immediately adopted Shivalingappa as her son and declared him the heir to the throne of Kittur.
This did not go well with the British East India Company who was enforcing the Doctrine of Lapse those days, according to which the adopted children of the Indian rulers were not allowed to become their heirs and if the native rulers did not have children of their own, their...
...Kingdom would become a territory of the British Empire. The Doctrine of Lapse came into force between 1848-1856. It was the brainchild of Lord Dalhousie. British East India Company therefore ordered the exile of Shivalingappa from the Kingdom of Kittur.
The Company refused to recognize Shivalingappa as a legal heir to the throne of Kittur. Rani Chennamma however, defied the British order and stood by her decision regarding Shivalingappa. Lord Elphinstone was the Governor of Bombay those days.
Chennamma sent a letter to Elphinstone to plead the cause of Kittur but her request was turned down. Meanwhile, the East India Company's Collector and political agent Thackeray wished to capture Kittur to expand the British Empire. He did not recognise Chennamma as Regent.
Chennamma was then asked to surrender her Kingdom but she defied British order one more time.The war just begun .
Britishers tried to weaken her position by plundering her treasury which valued around 15 lac rupees but were unsuccessful in doing so due to her pre anticipated axn.
First Battle between the Britishers & the Kingdom of Kittur happened in Oct 1824 to the very disappointment of Britishers who suffered very heavy losses. British collector & political agent Mr. John Thackeray was killed. It was Rani Chennamma's ferocious and fierce lieutenant...
...Amatur Ballappa who was responsible for Thackeray's death and the losses suffered by the British. Rani Chennamma took hostages, the two very prominent British Officers named Sir Wallace Elliot and Mr. Stevenson. It was a very humiliating defeat for the Britishers.
Britishers never expected such s strong defensive from a lady ruler and her army. Consequently, they offered negotiation to which Rani agreed. As a result of this negotiation, Rani released the two hostages after the Britishers promised that the war won't be continued any longer.
But due to their inherent quality of treachery and deception the Britishers deceived Rani Chennamma. Britishers very soon under the leadership of Mr. Chaplin attacked Kittur once again. Only this time they returned with large forces gathered from Mysore and Sholapur.
Rani had also tried to strengthen her forces in anticipation and requested the neighbouring kingdoms to support. But most of the kingdoms fell pray to the Divide and Rule policy of Britishers and Rani's efforts were in vain.
However,unflinched by the non-supportive nature of neighbouring kingdoms Rani Chennamma gathered her forces and faught the second battle even more fiercely than the first one. Under the able leadership of Rani &strategic guidance of her lieutenants Sangoli Rayanna &Gurusidappa...
...the Britishers again suffered losses and Collector of Sholapur Mr. Munroe was also killed. The battle continued for 12 relentless days and then Rani faced another betrayal, this time from her own people. Two of her soldiers Vankata Rao and Mallappa betrayed Chennamma .
These both traitors mixed mud and cowdung to the Gunpowder used for Canons on the orders of British as a result of which Rani Chennamma and her forces were defeated and Rani captured by the British. She was sentenced for life at the Bailhongal Fort.
Even after Rani's Capture Sangoli Rayanna , who was her loyal lieutenant continued to fight Britishers using Guerrilla warfare tactics until 1829 when he was captured and hanged by the British. Later Shivalingappa was also captured.

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हिमालय पर्वत की एक बड़ी पवित्र गुफा थी।उस गुफा के निकट ही गंगा जी बहती थी।एक बार देवर्षि नारद विचरण करते हुए वहां आ पहुंचे।वह परम पवित्र गुफा नारद जी को अत्यंत सुहावनी लगी।वहां का मनोरम प्राकृतिक दृश्य,पर्वत,नदी और वन देख उनके हृदय में श्रीहरि विष्णु की भक्ति अत्यंत बलवती हो उठी।

और देवर्षि नारद वहीं बैठकर तपस्या में लीन हो गए।इन्द्र नारद की तपस्या से घबरा गए।उन्हें हमेशा की तरह अपना सिंहासन व स्वर्ग खोने का डर सताने लगा।इसलिए इन्द्र ने नारद की तपस्या भंग करने के लिए कामदेव को उनके पास भेज दिया।वहां पहुंच कामदेव ने अपनी माया से वसंतऋतु को उत्पन्न कर दिया।

पेड़ और पौधों पर रंग बिरंगे फूल खिल गए और कोयलें कूकने लगी,पक्षी चहकने लगे।शीतल,मंद,सुगंधित और सुहावनी हवा चलने लगी।रंभा आदि अप्सराएं नाचने लगीं ।किन्तु कामदेव की किसी भी माया का नारद पे कोई प्रभाव नहीं पड़ा।तब कामदेव को डर सताने लगा कि कहीं नारद क्रोध में आकर मुझे श्राप न देदें।

जैसे ही नारद ने अपनी आंखें खोली, उसी क्षण कामदेव ने उनसे क्षमा मांगी।नारद मुनि को तनिक भी क्रोध नहीं आया और उन्होने शीघ्र ही कामदेव को क्षमा कर दिया।कामदेव प्रसन्न होकर वहां से चले गए।कामदेव के चले जाने पर देवर्षि के मन में अहंकार आ गया कि मैने कामदेव को हरा दिया।

नारद फिर कैलाश जा पहुंचे और शिवजी को अपनी विजयगाथा सुनाई।शिव समझ गए कि नारद अहंकारी हो गए हैं और अगर ये बात विष्णु जी जान गए तो नारद के लिए अच्छा नहीं होगा।ये सोचकर शिवजी ने नारद को भगवन विष्णु को ये बात बताने के लीए मना किया। परंतु नारद जी को ये बात उचित नहीं लगी।
दधीचि ऋषि को मनाही थी कि वह अश्विनी कुमारों को किसी भी अवस्था में ब्रह्मविद्या का उपदेश नहीं दें। ये आदेश देवराज इन्द्र का था।वह नहीं चाहते थे कि उनके सिंहासन को प्रत्यक्ष या परोक्ष रुप से कोई भी खतरा हो।मगर जब अश्विनी कुमारों ने सहृदय प्रार्थना की तो महर्षि सहर्ष मान गए।

और उन्होनें ब्रह्मविद्या का ज्ञान अश्विनि कुमारों को दे दिया। गुप्तचरों के माध्यम से जब खबर इन्द्रदेव तक पहुंची तो वे क्रोध में खड़ग ले कर गए और महर्षि दधीचि का सर धड़ से अलग कर दिया।मगर अश्विनी कुमार भी कहां चुप बैठने वाले थे।उन्होने तुरंत एक अश्व का सिर महर्षि के धड़ पे...

...प्रत्यारोपित कर उन्हें जीवित रख लिया।उस दिन के पश्चात महर्षि दधीचि अश्वशिरा भी कहलाए जाने लगे।अब आगे सुनिये की किस प्रकार महर्षि दधीचि का सर काटने वाले इन्द्र कैसे अपनी रक्षा हेतु उनके आगे गिड़गिड़ाए ।

एक बार देवराज इन्द्र अपनी सभा में बैठे थे, तो उन्हे खुद पर अभिमान हो आया।

वे सोचने लगे कि हम तीनों लोकों के स्वामी हैं। ब्राह्मण हमें यज्ञ में आहुति देते हैं और हमारी उपासना करते हैं। फिर हम सामान्य ब्राह्मण बृहस्पति से क्यों डरते हैं ?उनके आने पर क्यों खड़े हो जाते हैं?वे तो हमारी जीविका से पलते हैं। देवर्षि बृहस्पति देवताओं के गुरु थे।

अभिमान के कारण ऋषि बृहस्पति के पधारने पर न तो इन्द्र ही खड़े हुए और न ही अन्य देवों को खड़े होने दिया।देवगुरु बृहस्पति इन्द्र का ये कठोर दुर्व्यवहार देख कर चुप चाप वहां से लौट गए।कुछ देर पश्चात जब देवराज का मद उतरा तो उन्हे अपनी गलती का एहसास हुआ।

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