Logical fallacies are errors in reasoning that undermine the quality of an argument.
THREAD: 20 common logical fallacies to learn, identify, and avoid:
Latin for "to the person" - an attack of the person rather than the argument.
Instead of addressing the argument and its points and merits, the offender attempts to refute the opposition on the basis of personal characteristics.
All-too-common in politics.
A Texan fires a gun at a barn wall and then paints a target around the closest cluster of bullet holes to create the appearance of accuracy.
Selecting and highlighting evidence that supports the conclusion while ignoring evidence that may refute it.
An assumption of truth on the basis of the majority of people believing it to be true.
"Everyone believes X, so obviously X is true."
Typically offered without regard for the qualifications or ability of the people in question to validate the claim.
The offender ignores the actual argument and replaces it with a flimsy, distorted, easily-refuted argument (a “straw man”).
By replacing a strong argument with a weak one, the offender can create the illusion of an easy, swift victory.
The kippered herring was a smelly fish used to distract hunting dogs while training them to stay focused on a scent.
"Red herring" is now synonymous with distraction.
The offender distracts from the argument with a seemingly related (but actually unrelated) point.
Jumping to conclusions.
Material, wide-ranging conclusions are made on the basis of an immaterial, narrow body of evidence.
Insufficient evidence has been gathered to justify the claimed conclusions.
The over-reliance on the perspective of an "expert" to support the legitimacy of an argument.
The qualifications of the authority figure in the field of question must be considered.
Their support can be a feature - but not a pillar - of the argument.
The "appeal to purity" - the changing of the original argument to evade a counter-argument.
You claim a Scotsman never drinks scotch with soda. Charles says he is a Scotsman and drinks scotch with soda. You exclaim that Charles must not be a true Scotsman!
Sunk costs are the economic costs already invested in an activity that cannot be recovered.
The fallacy is found in thinking that you should continue on the basis of all that you've put in, with no regard for future costs or likelihood of ultimate success.
The conclusion does not follow logically from the premises.
Presented evidence provides little or no actual support for the argument.
“Charles ate fish for dinner and is well-spoken, so he must be a banker.”
Presenting only two choices or alternatives when there are many more that exist.
Ignores nuance and lends itself to extreme positions.
Typically reduces the potential for compromise, as the two options are painted as being extremely far apart.
Latin for “you too” - attempting to discredit an opponent’s argument by pointing out personal behavior as being inconsistent with their argument.
Targeting the hypocrisy of the opponent.
“Don’t question my integrity, look at all of the bad things you’ve done!”
An argument that begins with a benign starting point before using a series of successive steps to get to a more radical, extreme end point.
No single step appears ridiculous on the surface, but the connection of multiple steps into a series is highly-improbable.
A form of circular reasoning in which the argument is presented in such a way that the conclusion is included in the premise.
“Ghosts are real because I once experienced something that had to be a ghost.”
Easy to identify. The logic collapses on itself.
Asking a question with a presumption built into the question (pre-loaded!).
Typically intended to be inflammatory in nature.
The individual on the receiving end of the question is forced to respond despite the baseless, irrelevant nature of the presumption.
Argues that since Event B followed Event A, Event B must have been caused by Event A.
Just because B followed A, doesn’t necessarily mean that B was caused by A.
Correlation ≠ Causation.
Comes from the roots “equal” and “voice” - a single word or phrase can say two very different things.
Occurs when the offender uses a word or phrase in an intentionally misleading manner that sounds like it’s saying one thing but is actually saying something else.
You are unable to understand or believe something, therefore you argue that it cannot be true.
Complex topics often require significant upfront work to understand, so an inability to understand cannot be used to argue the illegitimacy of a claim.
The inability to provide evidence that a claim is false is used as justification that the claim is true.
The burden of proof lies with the person making the claim to provide supporting evidence.
The lack of refuting evidence is not supporting evidence.
Incorrectly assumes that a claim must be false if a fallacy was used to argue the claim.
Just because someone has poorly argued a claim, does not mean the claim itself is definitively false.
I will be turning this thread into a longer-form piece for my newsletter, where I will explore these in greater depth (including examples!).
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1/ An Allegory of Finance— Sahil Bloom (@SahilBloom) July 18, 2020
I have been posting a lot of educational (and humorous!) threads on finance, money, and economics.
My mission is simple: to demystify these concepts and make them accessible to everyone.
All of the threads can be found below. Enjoy and please share!
More from Sahil Bloom
But contrary to what you have been told, most of it has nothing to do with investing.
10 powerful lessons for life from the Oracle of Omaha:
Wait For A Juicy Pitch
“You don't have to swing at everything - you can wait for your pitch."
Life doesn’t reward you for the number of swings you take.
Focus on identifying the juiciest pitch.
When it comes, swing hard and don’t miss it.
Just Stop Digging
“The most important thing to do if you find yourself in a hole is to stop digging."
When things aren’t working, change course and try something different.
Be nimble. Be agile.
When you find yourself at the bottom of a hole, stop digging and climb out of it.
“Price is what you pay. Value is what you get.”
Seek out situations where there is a clear disconnect between price and value.
This applies to investing, but it’s more broadly a mental model for life.
Identify disconnects. Exploit them to your advantage.
“Be fearful when others are greedy and greedy when others are fearful.”
Following the crowd is easy, but it can be a trap.
Learn to think independently. Come to your own decisions. Develop your own mental models.
Your unique perspectives are your superpower.
A thread on its meaning and how it can change your life...
Memento Mori is a Latin phrase that translates to "remember that you must die."
A favorite of Stoic philosophy, it is a reminder of the certainty and inescapability of death.
It is not intended to be morbid or dark; rather, to clarify, illuminate, and inspire.
Memento Mori - the idea of remembering your mortality - has been around for millennia.
The phrase itself is believed to have originated in the Roman Empire.
After military victories, the heroes were paraded through the streets on chariots.
They may have felt like Gods...
But the Romans would place one person in the chariot whose sole responsibility was to whisper in the hero's ear throughout the parade.
"Respice post te. Hominem te esse memento. Memento mori!"
Translation: "Look behind. Remember thou art mortal. Remember that you must die!"
Memento Mori served as a tool to invoke humility in moments of glory.
It can also be a tool for providing clarity.
The Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius famously wrote in his Meditations, "You could leave life right now. Let that determine what you do and say and think."
But many of life’s most important truths appear contradictory on the surface.
THREAD: 15 powerful paradoxes (on growth, business, careers, and life):
Sprezzatura (“Studied Carelessness”)
You have to put in more effort to make something appear effortless.
Effortless, elegant performances are often the result of a large volume of effortful, gritty practice.
Simple is not simple.
Slow Down to Speed Up
Want to speed up? Try slowing down.
Slowing down gives you the time to be deliberate with your actions.
You can focus, gather energy, and deploy your resources more efficiently.
It allows you to focus on leverage and ROI.
Move slow to move fast.
Learn More to Know Less
The wisdom paradox - the more you learn, the more you are exposed to the immense unknown.
This should be empowering, not frightening.
“The more I learn, the more I realize how much I don't know.” - Albert Einstein
Embrace lifelong learning.
Lifelong learning is a competitive advantage.— Sahil Bloom (@SahilBloom) June 6, 2021
But contrary to what you\u2019ve been told, lifelong learners are built, not born.
THREAD: 20 lifelong learning habits you can start developing today.
Shrink to Grow
Growth is never linear.
In order to grow, sometimes you need to shrink.
Shedding deadweight may feel like a step back, but it is a necessity for long-term growth.
This principle applies to your career, startup, or life.
One step back for two steps forward.
Latin phrase for "to the person”—an attack of the individual rather than the argument.
Instead of addressing the argument and its merits, the offender attempts to refute the opposition on the basis of personal characteristics.
All-too-common in political debates.
A man fires a gun at a barn wall and then paints a target around the tightest cluster of bullet holes to create the appearance of accuracy.
The offender selects and highlights evidence that supports the conclusion—while ignoring evidence that may refute it.
The Sunk Cost Fallacy
Sunk costs are economic costs already invested in an activity that cannot be recovered.
The fallacy is found in thinking that you should continue on the basis of all that you've put in—with no regard for future costs or likelihood of ultimate success.
The Red Herring
The kippered herring was a smelly fish used to distract hunting dogs while training them to focus on a scent.
"Red herring" is now synonymous with distraction.
The offender distracts from the argument with a seemingly related—but actually unrelated—point.
Here’s a simple breakdown:
The story of Icarus is a famous tale from Greek mythology.
Icarus is the son of a craftsman—Daedalus.
To help the pair escape from Crete, Daedalus uses feathers and wax to create two sets of wings.
Prior to the attempt, Daedalus warns his son to avoid complacency and hubris.
Daedalus instructs Icarus to avoid flying too low or too high—cautioning that the sea's moisture or the sun's heat could cause the wings to malfunction.
But Icarus becomes amazed by his flight and soars away.
The sun melts the wax on his wings and Icarus falls to his death.
The tale of Icarus offers a poignant lesson:
Avoid complacency and hubris at all times.
What makes you successful initially may eventually lead to your downfall.
This is often referred to as "The Icarus Paradox”—it shows up constantly in business, investing, and life:
In business, how many incumbents have we seen achieve success with one product, only to be disrupted when the market shifts under their feet?
Overconfidence and success blinds incumbents to the coming wave of disruption.
60+ companies from the 1966 Fortune 100 no longer exist!
More from All
Have you ever heard about,"The Golden Ratio"?
The Golden Ratio or Phi(Greek) is a mathematical ratio of nature. Mother Nature is the most exquisite artist in herself.
&Its this Phi she uses to create all the beauty in World.
If anyone uses this ratio correctly in their art,it can turn into a spell-binding piece of work.Such is the significance of'Phi'.But my thread isn't about it.Its about somethin called'Fibonacci Series'&who actually made it
Phi is related to Fibonacci series(0,1,1,2,3,5,8,13,21,34...)
&this series is responsible for everything dat is beautiful on this planet. Just try to calculate the ratio of any 2 successive numbers ÷ each of them by the number before it in above infinite series.
E.g. 3/2=1.5, 5/3=1.666, 8/5=1.6, 34/21=1.61904 and so on. Did you notice something? The ratio is coming almost same every time. This ratio is called 'Phi 'which is numerically represented as 1:1.618. This Golden Spiral is made in exact proportion of 1:1.618.
The thing I want to emphasize here is that we always find only those things appealing and attractive that have Phi. It's in our subconscious. Isn't it some revelation? We are the part of this Divine proportion of the God or the Mother Nature. Check these:
The Straddle is a delta neutral strategy and it is important to keep deltas in check during the course of the Trade and not let them run away from you. Of course Volatility is the elephant in the room- but not going there as that will require a separate discussion
The first and most common method is to go 'inverted.' That is to say to shift the untested side to generate additional Premium and increase the runway to Breakeven. So if you start with a Straddle at 700 and price goes to 740, you can move the PE up to say 720.
How much should you move the untested side? While again this is a matter of skill, experience and artistry, the rule of thumb is to cut deltas by half. Remember, prices will move and you have to allow sufficient room for them to fluctuate
The second method is to shift the entire Straddle in the direction of the move. So if you have a 700 Straddle and Price goes to 740, you can shift the Straddle to 720. If you time this right, it can generally be done at virtually no cost or minimal cost.
कुण्डली को कालपुरुष की संज्ञा देकर इसमें शरीर के अंगों को स्थापित कर उनसे रोग, रोगेश, रोग को बढ़ाने घटाने वाले ग्रह
रोग की स्थिति में उत्प्रेरक का कार्य करने वाले ग्रह, आयुर्वेदिक/ऐलोपैथी/होमियोपैथी में से कौन कारगर होगा इसका आँकलन, रक्त विकार, रक्त और आपरेशन की स्थिति, कौन सा आंतरिक या बाहरी अंग प्रभावित होगा इत्यादि गणना करने में कुंडली का प्रयोग किया जाता है।
मेडिकल ज्योतिष में आज के समय में Dr. K. S. Charak का नाम निर्विवाद रूप से प्रथम स्थान रखता है। उनकी लिखी कई पुस्तकें आज इस क्षेत्र में नए ज्योतिषों का मार्गदर्शन कर रही हैं।
प्रथम भाव -
इस भाव से हम व्यक्ति की रोगप्रतिरोधक क्षमता, सिर, मष्तिस्क का विचार करते हैं।
दाहिना नेत्र, मुख, वाणी, नाक, गर्दन व गले के ऊपरी भाग का विचार होता है।
अस्थि, गला,कान, हाथ, कंधे व छाती के आंतरिक अंगों का शुरुआती भाग इत्यादि।
चतुर्थ भाव- छाती व इसके आंतरिक अंग, जातक की मानसिक स्थिति/प्रकृति, स्तन आदि की गणना की जाती है
जातक की बुद्धि व उसकी तीव्रता,पीठ, पसलियां,पेट, हृदय की स्थिति आंकलन में प्रयोग होता है।
रोग भाव कहा जाता है। कुंडली मे इसके तत्कालिक भाव स्वामी, कालपुरुष कुंडली के स्वामी, दृष्टि संबंध, रोगेश की स्थिति, रोगेश के नक्षत्र औऱ रोगेश व भाव की डिग्री इत्यादि।
A childless couple in our ward fostered two beautiful children. They were to be adopted. My wife & I took care of them in the nursery. The children called these people mommy and daddy. And then, one day, they were gone. Taken back. I will never forget the wife crying as she spoke
It was almost worse than a death. This couple sold their home shortly afterward and moved far, far away. Left everything behind. There was no coming back from that
I think of my wife picking up that beautiful edition of Heidi, clutching it to her chest in the book store. "It's so beautiful I think I'm gonna cry," she said. It's the same volume sitting on the shelf now, covered in dust
I read these tired, wretched little comments and cynical "gotchas" flung at these, my fellow believers & sufferers in Christ, with a detached heartache that I can only consider sacred. We have descended the abyss of sorrow--what have you to offer? A lame joke about Jordan Peele?
Let's decode why you should use it too and how I help myself.
I use these four features(primarily)
☑️ Option Chain
☑️ Total PE-CE Data
☑️ Option OI breakup
☑️ Strangle Charts(Combined Premium)
1/ Option Chain
Option Chain data is reliable when the trading week begins(i.e Friday). Even, Monday's data is not very accurate as traders are still building their positions.
I start giving emphasis to the build-up from Tuesday.
Looking at this week's expiry data(i.e 23rd June 2022),
We can observe
Put writing at 15300, Call writing at 16000
15500 call unwinding has been massive; which is visible by the move on Tuesday(i.e 21st June 2022)
Puts are still more pricey than calls, implying traders have been factoring a down move more than an up-move.
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Agama Shastra is a Sanskrit word that means the manual for worship, temple building, rituals etc in Hindu Tradition.From Sanskrit,agama means handed down by tradition and Shastra means a commentary or treatise.
Therefore, Agama Shastra is a collection of ideas that drafts the rules for worship, temple construction, spirituality and rituals. It has been a guideline for many Hindus from ancient times. It's a collection of Sanskrit, Tamil and Grantha scriptures that mostly contains...
...methods of temple construction, idol creation, philosophical doctrines and meditative practices. It came into being after years of assimiliation and from a variety of sources. Some parts of it are pre-vedic while some are post-vedic.
Hindu Temples are not just temples, they are the pride and identity of Hindus. They are the symbols of Hindu unity and their religious aspirations. Temples are the places of spiritual healing and are our connection with the creator almighty.
Temples are the priceless treasure of our History, Heritage ,Art & Architecture. Architecture that mesmerises and spell bounds you. And Agama Shastra is that very text which is responsible for such a mesmerising and spell binding quality and beauty of our Hindu Temples.
We’ve all grown up listening to stories of Shri Krishna. This one is a famous story of Shri Krishna in Guruvayur Temple, also called Dakshina Dwaraka.
There lived a villager who planted coconut saplings and had promised that he would offer the 'first coconut' from each of his coconut trees to "Guruvayurappan". When the trees started to yield coconuts, he collected the first coconut from all the trees in a sack 👇
and set forth to Guruvayur.
On the way he was stopped by a robber who asked all the items in the sack. The villager told the robber that the coconuts in the sack belonged to Guruvayurappan and so he was unable to hand it over.
The robber with anger asked the villager "Is Guruvaurappan's coconut any different? Does it have horns ?".
Saying so the robber pulled the sack forcefully out of the villager's hand, and coconuts came out..👇
To their astonishment each and every coconut in the sack had horns! Even today, the coconut with horns are displayed in the temple for devotees to see.
Below Picture is not original, as we cannot take photos inside temple.
Here's the most useful #Factualist comparison pages #Thread 🧵
What is the difference between “pseudonym” and “stage name?”
Pseudonym means “a fictitious name (more literally, a false name), as those used by writers and movie stars,” while stage name is “the pseudonym of an entertainer.”
https://t.co/hT5XPkTepy #english #wiki #wikidiff
People also found this comparison helpful:
Alias #versus Stage Name: What’s the difference?
Alias means “another name; an assumed name,” while stage name means “the pseudonym of an entertainer.”
https://t.co/Kf7uVKekMd #Etymology #words
Another common #question:
What is the difference between “alias” and “pseudonym?”
As nouns alias means “another name; an assumed name,” while pseudonym means “a fictitious name (more literally, a false name), as those used by writers and movie
Here is a very basic #comparison: "Name versus Stage Name"
As #nouns, the difference is that name means “any nounal word or phrase which indicates a particular person, place, class, or thing,” but stage name means “the pseudonym of an
These names are from Sri Vishnu Sahasranama!
|. "Om Vashatkaaraaya Namaha" : For Success in Business.
||. "Om Aksharaaya Namaha" : For Success in Studies.
|||. "Om Bhuthabhavanaya Namaha" : For Good Health.
|V. "Om Paramaathmane Namaha" : For Self Confidence.
Src: VAK magazine from Chilkur Balaji Temple, Hyderabad - Sri @csranga
#SanatanaDharma #SanatanaSanskriti #Sattology
One needs to chant the following slokas 28 times to get rid of certain problems in life.
Om Hrushikesaya Namah - For Overcoming Bad habits
Om Vashatkaaraya Namah - For Success in Business, Interviews, visa interviews, building relationships
Om Srimate Namah - For Handsome appearance & wealth
Om Aksharaya Namah - For Education & better financial strength
Om Paramatmane Namah - For self employed people, for promotions and success in games.
Om Putatmane Namah - To remove mental stress & for mental peace
Om Sarmane Namah - For Job Satisfaction
Om Bhutadaye Namah -To amend soured friendship or any personal relationship
Om Dhatre Namah - For issueless couple
Om vidhatre Namah - Pregnant Ladies to Chant for healthy babies.
Chant the following 108 times :