ANCIENT BHARAT WAS CALLED VISHWAGURU, AND IT REALLY DESERVED IT.

India had a well developed education system centuries before the westerners arrived and called us uncivilized. Education was always given a great importance in Indian civilisation since times immemorial.

Ancient India had the Gurukulas and Ashramas as the epicentres of the knowledge and enlightenment. Bigger Gurukulas served as the centres of higher education called universities. Besides these universities, temples also emerged as the major learning centres.
Studying the Holy Scriptures, character building, personality development, responsibilities towards self,family and society,discipline and preservation of the ancient culture and heritage were the key embodiments of education.
This kind of education system made ancient India, a centre of knowledge all over the world. Many foreign students came to India for education and India was called the 'Vishwaguru'.
Takshshila and Nalanda were the two prominent universities of ancient India.
But were these only Universities of ancient India?The answer is 'No'.Let's learn about these gems of our education system that flourished across ancient India & be proud.

NALANDA UNIVERSITY
This was the oldest university of ancient India.Situated in Nalanda distt. of Bihar...
...this University was founded by King Kumaragupta I of Gupta dynasty in the 5th century &it flourished for 600yrs till 12th century.Students from India, China,Korea&Central Asia came to university for studies. Astrology,Astronomy,Medicine, Mathematics,Literature etc. was taught.
It had the largest library in ancient world.Most sacred manuscripts were kept safe there.Muslim invader Bakhtyar Khilji annihilated the University in 1200CE. He set the library on fire and killed many Acharyas and students. Huen Tsang & Itsing were the famous Chinese travellers..
..who visited the Nalanda University and were greatly impressed by it. It was the first of its kind University that provided hostel accommodation for students and teachers. There were approx. 10000 students and 3000 teachers. It is a UNESCO world heritage site.
VIKRAMSHILA UNIVERSITY
Founded by the Pala King, Dharamapala(780-820CE), Vikramshila University was located in Antichak village of Bhagalpur Distt. Bihar. Ancient university was a centre of Buddhist learning, a large Buddhist Monastery and a Mahavihara.
Flourished from 8-12th century, university was famous for learnin Tantra Vidya.Philosophy, metaphysics,logic&grammar were other subjects.Also was taught the subject of Blackmagic.

VALLABHI UNIVERSITY
This ancient university was located at Vallabhipur,Bhavnagar distt of Gujarat
It was founded by Bhattarka,King of Maitraka Empire. It flourished from 6-12th century.Due to lack of interest by succesor of Maitraka Empire&continued invasions by Arabs,university lost its significance.
Religious studies,Arthshastra, Nithyashastra&Medicine were subjects taught
TAKSHASHILA UNIVERSITY
Takshashila was a world famous university of the ancient India. It was the first ancient Indian International University(400-550BCE). It was located in the Gandhar region of ancient India( Present day in Rawalpindi, Pakistan).
There r many sources dat have the mention of Takshashila such as Jatakas,Mahabharata&Ramayana etc.Flourished under the Maurya &Kushana empire periods,Takshashila was founded in 1000BCE &destroyed by the Huns of Central Asia in 5thcentury & later by Muslim invaders in 12thcentury.
Mahayana sect of Buddhism formed in Takshashila. The Vedas alongwith art forms like archery,music,dance,hunting were taught. Besides, the subjects of Philosophy, Ayurveda, Grammar & Astronomy were also taught. Takshashila was declared a UNESCO World heritage site in 1980.
10500 students approx. studied in Takshashila and 2000 teachers taught them. Students came from all over India, Egypt, Iraq, Greece, Syria, Turkey & China. Kautilya, Charaka & Panini were the students of Takshashila.
PUSHPAGIRI UNIVERSITY
Located in ancient Kalinga(Cuttack & Jaipur distt of Odisha),this ancient university(3-12th century) was discovered in 1995 &the evidence showed that it may be founded by Ashoka himself.The university campus was spread across 3 adjoining hills-Lalitgiri...
...Ratnagiri and Udayagiri. This was one of the most prominent centres of higher education in ancient India alongwith Takshashila, Nalanda and Vikramshila. Chinese traveller Huen Tsang visited it in 639CE and was spellbound by the way it functioned.
SOMAPURA UNIVERSITY

Built by King Dharamapala (780-820CE) of Pala Empire, it was located in Paharpur of Nagaon Distt in present Bangladesh. It's Terracotta wall paintings showed that it was a major centre for learning the Dharma traditions of Buddhism, Jainism and Hinduism.
Built in Buddhist architectural style of Cambodia, it was spread over 27 acres of land. Later, due to lack of maintenance and attacks by the Muslim plunderers led to the decline of this important learning centre.
The above mentioned were some of the major learning centres of ancient India but that's not the end of it. There is a very long list. Dharamapala of Pala dynasty is believed to have established 50 major educational centres across his Kingdom.
Most of the universities above were destroyed around 12th century, during the Muslim invasion of India by the fanatic Bakhtyar Khilji from Turkey in 1193CE. The great library of the Nalanda University was ransacked and burnt by Khilji's Army.
Its said that the library was so vast that the manuscripts kept burning for 3 months. Numerous ancient manuscripts preserved for 1000s of years were destroyed in this fire. 1000s of students were burnt alive and beheaded by Khilji's army.
One thing is true about the Muslim invaders,"What they couldn't have,they couldn't build,they destroyed".I can give full marks to them for spreading the death destruction&annihilation across the world.Lastly, I would like to quote a famous American writer and lecturer Mark Twain.
He said, "India is the cradle of the human race, birthplace of the human speech, the mother of history, the grandmother of legend and the great grandmother of tradition. Our most valuable and most instructive materials in the history of man are treasured up in India only".

🙏🙏

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दधीचि ऋषि को मनाही थी कि वह अश्विनी कुमारों को किसी भी अवस्था में ब्रह्मविद्या का उपदेश नहीं दें। ये आदेश देवराज इन्द्र का था।वह नहीं चाहते थे कि उनके सिंहासन को प्रत्यक्ष या परोक्ष रुप से कोई भी खतरा हो।मगर जब अश्विनी कुमारों ने सहृदय प्रार्थना की तो महर्षि सहर्ष मान गए।


और उन्होनें ब्रह्मविद्या का ज्ञान अश्विनि कुमारों को दे दिया। गुप्तचरों के माध्यम से जब खबर इन्द्रदेव तक पहुंची तो वे क्रोध में खड़ग ले कर गए और महर्षि दधीचि का सर धड़ से अलग कर दिया।मगर अश्विनी कुमार भी कहां चुप बैठने वाले थे।उन्होने तुरंत एक अश्व का सिर महर्षि के धड़ पे...


...प्रत्यारोपित कर उन्हें जीवित रख लिया।उस दिन के पश्चात महर्षि दधीचि अश्वशिरा भी कहलाए जाने लगे।अब आगे सुनिये की किस प्रकार महर्षि दधीचि का सर काटने वाले इन्द्र कैसे अपनी रक्षा हेतु उनके आगे गिड़गिड़ाए ।

एक बार देवराज इन्द्र अपनी सभा में बैठे थे, तो उन्हे खुद पर अभिमान हो आया।


वे सोचने लगे कि हम तीनों लोकों के स्वामी हैं। ब्राह्मण हमें यज्ञ में आहुति देते हैं और हमारी उपासना करते हैं। फिर हम सामान्य ब्राह्मण बृहस्पति से क्यों डरते हैं ?उनके आने पर क्यों खड़े हो जाते हैं?वे तो हमारी जीविका से पलते हैं। देवर्षि बृहस्पति देवताओं के गुरु थे।

अभिमान के कारण ऋषि बृहस्पति के पधारने पर न तो इन्द्र ही खड़े हुए और न ही अन्य देवों को खड़े होने दिया।देवगुरु बृहस्पति इन्द्र का ये कठोर दुर्व्यवहार देख कर चुप चाप वहां से लौट गए।कुछ देर पश्चात जब देवराज का मद उतरा तो उन्हे अपनी गलती का एहसास हुआ।
⚜️क्या आप राजा शिवि और दो पक्षियों की कथा जानते हैं?⚜️

पुरुवंश में जन्मे उशीनर देश के राजा शिवि बड़े ही परोपकारी और धर्मात्मा थे। जो भी याचक उसने द्वार जाता था कभी खाली हाथ नहीं लौटता था। प्राणिमात्र के प्रति राजा शिवि का बड़ा स्नेह था।


अतः उनके राज्य में हमेशा सुख शांति और स्नेह का वातावरण बना रहता था। राजा शिवि हमेशा ईश्वर की भक्ति में लीन रहते थे। राजा शिवि की परोपकार शीलता और त्याग वृति के चर्चे स्वर्गलोक तक प्रसिद्ध थे।

देवताओं के मुख से राजा शिवि की इस प्रसिद्धि के बारे में सुनकर इंद्र और अग्नि को विश्वास नहीं हुआ। अतः उन्होंने उशीनरेश की परीक्षा करने की ठानी और एक युक्ति निकाली। अग्नि ने कबूतर का रूप धारण किया और इंद्र ने एक बाज का रूप धारण किया दोनों उड़ते-उड़ते राजा शिवि के राज्य में पहुँचे।


उस समय राजा शिवि एक धार्मिक यज्ञ का अनुष्ठान कर रहे थे। कबूतर उड़ते-उड़ते आर्तनाद करता हुआ राजा शिवि की गोद में आ गिरा और मनुष्य की भाषा में बोला राजन! मैं आपकी शरण आया हूँ मेरी रक्षा कीजिये।

थोड़ी ही देर में कबूतर के पीछे-पीछे बाज भी वहाँ आ पहुँचा और बोला राजन! निसंदेह आप धर्मात्मा और परोपकारी राजा है आप कृतघ्न को धन से झूठ को सत्य से निर्दयी को क्षमा से और क्रूर को साधुता से जीत लेते है इसलिए आपका कोई शत्रु नहीं और आप अजातशत्रु नाम से प्रसिद्ध है।

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1/ Here’s a list of conversational frameworks I’ve picked up that have been helpful.

Please add your own.

2/ The Magic Question: "What would need to be true for you


3/ On evaluating where someone’s head is at regarding a topic they are being wishy-washy about or delaying.

“Gun to the head—what would you decide now?”

“Fast forward 6 months after your sabbatical--how would you decide: what criteria is most important to you?”

4/ Other Q’s re: decisions:

“Putting aside a list of pros/cons, what’s the *one* reason you’re doing this?” “Why is that the most important reason?”

“What’s end-game here?”

“What does success look like in a world where you pick that path?”

5/ When listening, after empathizing, and wanting to help them make their own decisions without imposing your world view:

“What would the best version of yourself do”?