India had a well developed education system centuries before the westerners arrived and called us uncivilized. Education was always given a great importance in Indian civilisation since times immemorial.

Ancient India had the Gurukulas and Ashramas as the epicentres of the knowledge and enlightenment. Bigger Gurukulas served as the centres of higher education called universities. Besides these universities, temples also emerged as the major learning centres.
Studying the Holy Scriptures, character building, personality development, responsibilities towards self,family and society,discipline and preservation of the ancient culture and heritage were the key embodiments of education.
This kind of education system made ancient India, a centre of knowledge all over the world. Many foreign students came to India for education and India was called the 'Vishwaguru'.
Takshshila and Nalanda were the two prominent universities of ancient India.
But were these only Universities of ancient India?The answer is 'No'.Let's learn about these gems of our education system that flourished across ancient India & be proud.

This was the oldest university of ancient India.Situated in Nalanda distt. of Bihar...
...this University was founded by King Kumaragupta I of Gupta dynasty in the 5th century &it flourished for 600yrs till 12th century.Students from India, China,Korea&Central Asia came to university for studies. Astrology,Astronomy,Medicine, Mathematics,Literature etc. was taught.
It had the largest library in ancient world.Most sacred manuscripts were kept safe there.Muslim invader Bakhtyar Khilji annihilated the University in 1200CE. He set the library on fire and killed many Acharyas and students. Huen Tsang & Itsing were the famous Chinese travellers..
..who visited the Nalanda University and were greatly impressed by it. It was the first of its kind University that provided hostel accommodation for students and teachers. There were approx. 10000 students and 3000 teachers. It is a UNESCO world heritage site.
Founded by the Pala King, Dharamapala(780-820CE), Vikramshila University was located in Antichak village of Bhagalpur Distt. Bihar. Ancient university was a centre of Buddhist learning, a large Buddhist Monastery and a Mahavihara.
Flourished from 8-12th century, university was famous for learnin Tantra Vidya.Philosophy, metaphysics,logic&grammar were other subjects.Also was taught the subject of Blackmagic.

This ancient university was located at Vallabhipur,Bhavnagar distt of Gujarat
It was founded by Bhattarka,King of Maitraka Empire. It flourished from 6-12th century.Due to lack of interest by succesor of Maitraka Empire&continued invasions by Arabs,university lost its significance.
Religious studies,Arthshastra, Nithyashastra&Medicine were subjects taught
Takshashila was a world famous university of the ancient India. It was the first ancient Indian International University(400-550BCE). It was located in the Gandhar region of ancient India( Present day in Rawalpindi, Pakistan).
There r many sources dat have the mention of Takshashila such as Jatakas,Mahabharata&Ramayana etc.Flourished under the Maurya &Kushana empire periods,Takshashila was founded in 1000BCE &destroyed by the Huns of Central Asia in 5thcentury & later by Muslim invaders in 12thcentury.
Mahayana sect of Buddhism formed in Takshashila. The Vedas alongwith art forms like archery,music,dance,hunting were taught. Besides, the subjects of Philosophy, Ayurveda, Grammar & Astronomy were also taught. Takshashila was declared a UNESCO World heritage site in 1980.
10500 students approx. studied in Takshashila and 2000 teachers taught them. Students came from all over India, Egypt, Iraq, Greece, Syria, Turkey & China. Kautilya, Charaka & Panini were the students of Takshashila.
Located in ancient Kalinga(Cuttack & Jaipur distt of Odisha),this ancient university(3-12th century) was discovered in 1995 &the evidence showed that it may be founded by Ashoka himself.The university campus was spread across 3 adjoining hills-Lalitgiri...
...Ratnagiri and Udayagiri. This was one of the most prominent centres of higher education in ancient India alongwith Takshashila, Nalanda and Vikramshila. Chinese traveller Huen Tsang visited it in 639CE and was spellbound by the way it functioned.

Built by King Dharamapala (780-820CE) of Pala Empire, it was located in Paharpur of Nagaon Distt in present Bangladesh. It's Terracotta wall paintings showed that it was a major centre for learning the Dharma traditions of Buddhism, Jainism and Hinduism.
Built in Buddhist architectural style of Cambodia, it was spread over 27 acres of land. Later, due to lack of maintenance and attacks by the Muslim plunderers led to the decline of this important learning centre.
The above mentioned were some of the major learning centres of ancient India but that's not the end of it. There is a very long list. Dharamapala of Pala dynasty is believed to have established 50 major educational centres across his Kingdom.
Most of the universities above were destroyed around 12th century, during the Muslim invasion of India by the fanatic Bakhtyar Khilji from Turkey in 1193CE. The great library of the Nalanda University was ransacked and burnt by Khilji's Army.
Its said that the library was so vast that the manuscripts kept burning for 3 months. Numerous ancient manuscripts preserved for 1000s of years were destroyed in this fire. 1000s of students were burnt alive and beheaded by Khilji's army.
One thing is true about the Muslim invaders,"What they couldn't have,they couldn't build,they destroyed".I can give full marks to them for spreading the death destruction&annihilation across the world.Lastly, I would like to quote a famous American writer and lecturer Mark Twain.
He said, "India is the cradle of the human race, birthplace of the human speech, the mother of history, the grandmother of legend and the great grandmother of tradition. Our most valuable and most instructive materials in the history of man are treasured up in India only".


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प्राचीन काल में गाधि नामक एक राजा थे।उनकी सत्यवती नाम की एक पुत्री थी।राजा गाधि ने अपनी पुत्री का विवाह महर्षि भृगु के पुत्र से करवा दिया।महर्षि भृगु इस विवाह से बहुत प्रसन्न हुए और उन्होने अपनी पुत्रवधु को आशीर्वाद देकर उसे कोई भी वर मांगने को कहा।

सत्यवती ने महर्षि भृगु से अपने तथा अपनी माता के लिए पुत्र का वरदान मांगा।ये जानकर महर्षि भृगु ने यज्ञ किया और तत्पश्चात सत्यवती और उसकी माता को अलग-अलग प्रकार के दो चरू (यज्ञ के लिए पकाया हुआ अन्न) दिए और कहा कि ऋतु स्नान के बाद तुम्हारी माता पुत्र की इच्छा लेकर पीपल का आलिंगन...

...करें और तुम भी पुत्र की इच्छा लेकर गूलर वृक्ष का आलिंगन करना। आलिंगन करने के बाद चरू का सेवन करना, इससे तुम दोनो को पुत्र प्राप्ति होगी।परंतु मां बेटी के चरू आपस में बदल जाते हैं और ये महर्षि भृगु अपनी दिव्य दृष्टि से देख लेते हैं।

भृगु ऋषि सत्यवती से कहते हैं,"पुत्री तुम्हारा और तुम्हारी माता ने एक दुसरे के चरू खा लिए हैं।इस कारण तुम्हारा पुत्र ब्राह्मण होते हुए भी क्षत्रिय सा आचरण करेगा और तुम्हारी माता का पुत्र क्षत्रिय होकर भी ब्राह्मण सा आचरण करेगा।"
इस पर सत्यवती ने भृगु ऋषि से बड़ी विनती की।

सत्यवती ने कहा,"मुझे आशीर्वाद दें कि मेरा पुत्र ब्राह्मण सा ही आचरण करे।"तब महर्षि ने उसे ये आशीर्वाद दे दिया कि उसका पुत्र ब्राह्मण सा ही आचरण करेगा किन्तु उसका पौत्र क्षत्रियों सा व्यवहार करेगा। सत्यवती का एक पुत्र हुआ जिसका नाम जम्दाग्नि था जो सप्त ऋषियों में से एक हैं।

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Unfortunately the "This work includes the identification of viral sequences in bat samples, and has resulted in the isolation of three bat SARS-related coronaviruses that are now used as reagents to test therapeutics and vaccines." were BEFORE the

chimeric infectious clone grants were there. is in 2017, Rs4231. is in 2016, RsSHC014 and RsWIV16. is in 2013, RsWIV1. notice that this is before the beginning of the project

starting in 2016. Also remember that they told about only 3 isolates/live viruses. RsSHC014 is a live infectious clone that is just as alive as those other "Isolates".

P.D. somehow is able to use funds that he have yet recieved yet, and send results and sequences from late 2019 back in time into 2015,2013 and 2016! Ref 3: Why ALL your pangolin samples were PCR negative? to avoid deep sequencing and accidentally reveal Paguma Larvata and Oryctolagus Cuniculus?

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Once upon a time there was a Raja named Uttānapāda born of Svayambhuva Manu,1st man on earth.He had 2 beautiful wives - Suniti & Suruchi & two sons were born of them Dhruva & Uttama respectively.

Now Suniti was the daughter of a tribal chief while Suruchi was the daughter of a rich king. Hence Suruchi was always favored the most by Raja while Suniti was ignored. But while Suniti was gentle & kind hearted by nature Suruchi was venomous inside.

The story is of a time when ideally the eldest son of the king becomes the heir to the throne. Hence the sinhasan of the Raja belonged to Dhruva.This is why Suruchi who was the 2nd wife nourished poison in her heart for Dhruva as she knew her son will never get the throne.

One day when Dhruva was just 5 years old he went on to sit on his father's lap. Suruchi, the jealous queen, got enraged and shoved him away from Raja as she never wanted Raja to shower Dhruva with his fatherly affection.

Dhruva protested questioning his step mother "why can't i sit on my own father's lap?" A furious Suruchi berated him saying "only God can allow him that privilege. Go ask him"