@NBA @StephenKissler @yhgrad B.1.1.7 reveals clearly that SARS-CoV-2 is reverting to its original pre-outbreak condition, i.e. adapted to transgenic hACE2 mice (either Baric's BALB/c ones or others used at WIV labs during chimeric bat coronavirus experiments aimed at developing a pan betacoronavirus vaccine)

@EricTopol @NBA @StephenKissler @yhgrad 1. From Day 1, SARS-COV-2 was very well adapted to humans .....and transgenic hACE2 Mice https://t.co/TNE4tuLkqN
@EricTopol @NBA @StephenKissler @yhgrad 2. High Probability of serial passaging in Transgenic Mice expressing hACE2 in genesis of SARS-COV-2 https://t.co/B3eR764c1Z
@EricTopol @NBA @StephenKissler @yhgrad B.1.1.7 has an unusually large number of genetic changes, ... found to date in mouse-adapted SARS-CoV2 and is also seen in ferret infections.
https://t.co/9Z4oJmkcKj
@EricTopol @NBA @StephenKissler @yhgrad We adapted a clinical isolate of SARS-CoV-2 by serial passaging in the ... Thus, this mouse-adapted strain and associated challenge model should be ... (B) SARS-CoV-2 genomic RNA loads in mouse lung homogenates at P0 to P6.
https://t.co/I90OOCJg7o
@EricTopol @NBA @StephenKissler @yhgrad Mice!
A mink-associated variant carrying Δ(69-70)-Y453F-F486L-N501T-M1229I mutations was also able to utilize mouse Ace2. In addition, all variants carrying an N501Y mutation, a shared feature of UK, South Africa, & Brazil VOC strains, efficiently use mouse Ace2 orthologs.
@EricTopol @NBA @StephenKissler @yhgrad Topolino!
"Moreover, the K417N-E484K-N501Y mutations found in the South Africa variant 501Y.V2 even enable the virus to utilize rat Ace2 more efficiently than using human ACE2. These data suggest that rats and mice may (have) be(en) able to harbor and spread these variants"?
@EricTopol @NBA @StephenKissler @yhgrad Above taken from:
Circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants B.1.1.7, 501Y.V2, and P.1 have gained ability to utilize rat and mouse Ace2 and altered in vitro sensitivity to neutralizing antibodies and ACE2-Ig
https://t.co/j9qEcUz4ea
Well worth a read!
@EricTopol @NBA @StephenKissler @yhgrad even the mink variants were mouse ACE2 adapted, what a surprise...now, who would have expected that?
@EricTopol @NBA @StephenKissler @yhgrad Serial passaging of virus in mouse lungs results in adaptive mutations that increase viral infectivity
MASCp6 genome contains 5 mutations compared to its parental strain IME-BJ05, resulting in four amino acid residue changes in the ORF1ab, S, and N genes, respectively (Fig. 3A)
@EricTopol @NBA @StephenKissler @yhgrad The N501Y mutation seems to provide a more favorable interaction with mouse ACE2 for docking and entry, thus leading to the increased virulence phenotype in mice.
Adaptation of SARS-CoV-2 in BALB/c mice
https://t.co/I90OOCJg7o
@EricTopol @NBA @StephenKissler @yhgrad Protein-coding mutations in SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 virus variant.
A) open reading frames (dark purple arrows) and proteins resulting from cleavage of ORF1ab polypeptide into non-structural proteins (light purple). 17 protein-coding mutations are annotated (top)
@EricTopol @NBA @StephenKissler @yhgrad which includes 14 non-synonymous mutations and 3 deletions spanning 5 viral proteins. B) Expansion of the genomic region from spike to N protein for visualization purposes.
@EricTopol @NBA @StephenKissler @yhgrad "N501Y mutation in SARS-CoV-2 spike leads to morbidity in obese and aged mice"
https://t.co/FOfZg8SiQU
@EricTopol @NBA @StephenKissler @yhgrad Differential efficiencies to neutralize the novel mutants B.1.1.7 and 501Y.V2 by collected sera from convalescent COVID-19 patients and RBD nanoparticle-vaccinated rhesus macaques
https://t.co/fBHaTllKvJ
@EricTopol @NBA @StephenKissler @yhgrad Just to annoy people
Virology: the problem with ‘leaky’ vaccines
Fresh evidence supports the theory that some vaccines lead to the evolution of more virulent viral strains
https://t.co/ttyM9J2idI

More from Billy Bostickson 🏴👁&👁 🆓

1. Some useful, albeit not fully developed, critiques of:

“The Origins of SARS-CoV-2: A Critical Review"

https://t.co/C9TyRyqHUr

have just been published here:
https://t.co/qCmzGCzRxn
by members of DRASTIC & others
@angoffinet @BahulikarRahul @MonaRahalkar @gdemaneuf

2. A refreshing contrast to the so-called "expert reactions" found here, including from one of the authors of the review (Prof David Robertson)!

"expert reaction to a preprint reviewing the evidence on the origins of SARS-CoV-2"

https://t.co/6kG6rstweP


3. Peter Gutierrez points out in his response that 4 of the authors of “The Origins of SARS-CoV-2: A Critical Review”, also wrote “Proximal Origin of SARS-COV-2”.

His critique focuses on:

1. RaTG13

2. Enhanced adaptation to the human host

https://t.co/eW8b2iK5xe


4. As to be expected, Sydney University and its iconic virologist, Eddie Holmes, who is "not available for interview", are crowing over this biased review
https://t.co/xrjpN1NxpO


This review contains elementary errors as exposed here:
1. https://t.co/YJ50huifly
one of the authors (Stuart Neil) then claimed
"Didn’t N501Y come up in ACE2 TG mice too?
https://t.co/HscNSEKdrZ
1/4
Laulima Government Services (Fort Detrick BSL4) Contractor
(Alaka`ina Foundation) Hawaii DOD
Took over contract from Battelle

2/4
Tunnell Government Services
Jens Kuhn jumped ship from Battelle to steal

3/4 Jens Kuhn
https://t.co/rLxUmZoaQL
https://t.co/bOLwU9kTpW
https://t.co/WLi5NBTDEN
https://t.co/UF9gXup0El
https://t.co/5eVmln5sqN
wrote 6 tedious taxonomy papers with Fouchier
https://t.co/BAiXesvPxd
https://t.co/h4H4k7X4E3
Farzan & Kuhn ACE-2 &

4/4 Animal Origins of SARS Cov:
Insight from ACE2-S-Protein Interactions
https://t.co/sZp1fC4AdW
insights gained from study of SARS-CoV spike protein, which mediates viral entry & interaction with ACE2 receptor for SARS-CoV
Fang Li, Jens H. Kuhn, Michael Farzan


Kuhn's Appendix
https://t.co/QzTIyfdS0M
Global RNA Virome
https://t.co/zEdDcpoZKJ
S proteins of HCOVNL63 & SARS bind ACE 2 (with Farzan) https://t.co/K3RuTBo6R6!
Chapters 21, 22, 23 https://t.co/ckugrvRFwv
Chapter 57 in 1500 Page Book (Clinical Virology)
https://t.co/6ssn2LV0kS
Tip from the Monkey
Pangolins, September 2019 and PLA are the key to this mystery
Stay Tuned!


1. Yang


2. A jacobin capuchin dangling a flagellin pangolin on a javelin while playing a mandolin and strangling a mannequin on a paladin's palanquin, said Saladin
More to come tomorrow!


3. Yigang Tong
https://t.co/CYtqYorhzH
Archived: https://t.co/ncz5ruwE2W


4. YT Interview
Some bats & pangolins carry viruses related with SARS-CoV-2, found in SE Asia and in Yunnan, & the pangolins carrying SARS-CoV-2 related viruses were smuggled from SE Asia, so there is a possibility that SARS-CoV-2 were coming from

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