Was reading upon #Biases & learnt a lot. Thought of sharing a few pointers .
Simply put Bias is a disproportionate weight in favour of or against any idea/thing in all aspects of life.
Few types of Biases ( out of the many) with not so random images. :)

The #DunningKruger effect now is fairly well known , wherein people with limited knowledge overestimate their competence, whilst the actually knowledgeable question themselves often .
"Ignorance more frequently begets confidence than does knowledge".
A very interesting bias wherein we credit our successes to purely ourselves, but when things go awry we cite luck & external forces .
Rings any bells?
Basically a defence mechanism to protect our self esteem & eventually from personal responsibility.
* #ConfirmationBias *
We all favour ideas & beliefs that affirm to our existing ones' , rarely being open to contradictory opinions .
(Especially in markets !! 😬) Why?

Laziness? Mental block? Ego ?
No wonder, Birds of a feather flock together ... 😉
* #SunkCostBias *
As we know, sunk costs are irrecoverable , regardless of outcomes. (Eg Money expended towards R&D for a molecule which doesn't work out)
But this actually extends in any investment we make - Time,Money, Effort, Relationships ...😏
Interesting right?
Be it financial decisions, daily life decisions, our career ...
we tend to go all in because we have invested our time,energy & efforts & we PERSIST with them. The psychological blocks in the way of simply discarding our "misses" & clinging onto them is baffling.
* The #BandwagonEffect*
Commonly known as herd mentality wherein people do something primarily because they see others doing it,despite it not aligning to their beliefs . The best example of it being Markets :)
#SnobEffect works contrary to this .
All of us are guilty of this ! When something happens as per our claims, we tend to blurt out
"I said so ! " 🤷😬
Things are often more obvious & predictable after events transpire.
But intially one can only offer a guess.
Often leads to overconfidence 🙂
* Optimistic/ Pessimistic Bias *
Basically the difference between a person's expectation & the actual outcome.
If reality is better than expected - Pessimistic Bias & vice versa.
Must say for all that positivity I exude, I actually incline toward a Pessimistic Bias! 🤓
Hence it is rightly said, "Never make decisions when sad & promises when happy."
For we tend to become victim to our emotions which makes our thinking irrational .
So are we rationally irrational or irrationally rational ?? 🤔
When faced with a bottleneck we tend to have this bias of leaning toward information which is readily available & retreivable from our memory ,thereby distorting our understanding of real risks . For we assume our recollections to be concise & precise.
*The #FundamentalAttributionError*

As a society we involuntarily tend to do this .
A lady driving well ?
Good looking ,hence must be dumb !
Men & nurturing?
Stereotyping & failing to look at the larger picture before jumping to conclusions based on info available.
* In Group Bias *
Don't we tend to favour our known one's more than a stranger ?
I know I have done this often .
It kind of stems sub consciously .
We think we are being impartial .
It is just our love and kinship onto play here.
If not overdone , is actually healthy.

* The #BarnumEffect *

Wherein generic statements (specifically positive) also seem specific to us because of a combination of wishful thinking & hopefulness.
Often used in horoscopes, marketing & advertising . Heck even in grooming nowadays ! 😀
To sum it up, I guess we all have fallen prey to our biases at some point,for it is easier said than done !
But some #CriticalThinking and #ReflectiveJudgement definitely shall help us in better decision making I guess!
Afterall we all learn from our mistakes!! 🤓🤓🤷🤷
I hope this thread provided some content which might be useful for investing or life in general . .
Thanks for putting up with it ! :))



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शमशान में जब महर्षि दधीचि के मांसपिंड का दाह संस्कार हो रहा था तो उनकी पत्नी अपने पति का वियोग सहन नहीं कर पायी और पास में ही स्थित विशाल पीपल वृक्ष के कोटर में अपने तीन वर्ष के बालक को रख के स्वयं चिता पे बैठ कर सती हो गयी ।इस प्रकार ऋषी दधीचि और उनकी पत्नी की मुक्ति हो गयी।

परन्तु पीपल के कोटर में रखा बालक भूख प्यास से तड़पने लगा। जब कुछ नहीं मिला तो वो कोटर में पड़े पीपल के गोदों (फल) को खाकर बड़ा होने लगा। कालान्तर में पीपल के फलों और पत्तों को खाकर बालक का जीवन किसी प्रकार सुरक्षित रहा।

एक दिन देवर्षि नारद वहां से गुजर रहे थे ।नारद ने पीपल के कोटर में बालक को देख कर उसका परिचय मांगा -
नारद बोले - बालक तुम कौन हो?
बालक - यही तो मैं भी जानना चहता हूँ ।
नारद - तुम्हारे जनक कौन हैं?
बालक - यही तो मैं भी जानना चाहता हूँ ।

तब नारद ने आँखें बन्द कर ध्यान लगाया ।

तत्पश्चात आश्चर्यचकित हो कर बालक को बताया कि 'हे बालक! तुम महान दानी महर्षि दधीचि के पुत्र हो । तुम्हारे पिता की अस्थियों का वज्रास्त्र बनाकर ही देवताओं ने असुरों पर विजय पायी थी।तुम्हारे पिता की मृत्यु मात्र 31 वर्ष की वय में ही हो गयी थी'।

बालक - मेरे पिता की अकाल मृत्यु का क्या कारण था?
नारद - तुम्हारे पिता पर शनिदेव की महादशा थी।
बालक - मेरे उपर आयी विपत्ति का कारण क्या था?
नारद - शनिदेव की महादशा।
इतना बताकर देवर्षि नारद ने पीपल के पत्तों और गोदों को खाकर बड़े हुए उस बालक का नाम पिप्पलाद रखा और उसे दीक्षित किया।
Trump is gonna let the Mueller investigation end all on it's own. It's obvious. All the hysteria of the past 2 weeks about his supposed impending firing of Mueller was a distraction. He was never going to fire Mueller and he's not going to

Mueller's officially end his investigation all on his own and he's gonna say he found no evidence of Trump campaign/Russian collusion during the 2016 election.

Democrats & DNC Media are going to LITERALLY have nothing coherent to say in response to that.

Mueller's team was 100% partisan.

That's why it's brilliant. NOBODY will be able to claim this team of partisan Democrats didn't go the EXTRA 20 MILES looking for ANY evidence they could find of Trump campaign/Russian collusion during the 2016 election

They looked high.

They looked low.

They looked underneath every rock, behind every tree, into every bush.

And they found...NOTHING.

Those saying Mueller will file obstruction charges against Trump: laughable.

What documents did Trump tell the Mueller team it couldn't have? What witnesses were withheld and never interviewed?


Mueller got full 100% cooperation as the record will show.